Contraindications and false contraindications

Contraindications to immunization dictate circumstances when vaccines should not be given because the condition in an individual increases the risk for a serious adverse reaction following immunization. The majority of con traindications are temporary, and the vaccine can be given later. However, in many cases immunization is delayed or denied because of conditions falsely believed by the physician or the health worker to constitute a contraindication. The World Health Organization and the...

Epidemiology and presentation of invasive fungal infections in pediatric patients

Epidemiology Fungi

Candida spp. colonize the vaginal tract of approximately 30 of pregnant women very rarely, they can become the cause of chorioamnionitis and intrauterine infection 29, 30 . Candida rapidly colonizes the mucocutaneous surfaces 31, 32 in healthy infants, this colonization may result in thrush and diaper dermatitis 31 . In hospitalized, ill neonates, however, Candida has evolved as important cause of life-threatening invasive infections, particularly in very low birth weight infants. Candida spp....

Pathophysiology of malnutrition

Malnutrition can be classified as either primary or secondary 1 . Primary malnutrition is caused by inadequate calorie and nutrient intake. In developed societies, calorie intake is usually presumed to be adequate. However, inadequate intake of micronutrients including vitamins A and E, calcium, iron and zinc are prevalent among children of 1-10 years of age and often unrecognized, especially in minority populations 2 . Primary malnutrition in infants can also occur through child neglect or...

Conditions with excessive numbers of warts

In most patients, immunosurveillance and innate immunity contain HPV infection. Excessive numbers of warts are seen in a variety of genetic and acquired conditions Tab. 4 , and may be associated with an increased local risk of cutaneous oncogenesis. Acquired immunosuppression Fig. 2 is exceedingly common, whether from transplantation, chemotherapy or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Of the acquired conditions, renal transplantation, because it often occurs in younger patients, is associated...

Genital HPV infection

Almost all strains of genital HPV are oncogenic, whether of high potential (e.g., HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 34) or low potential (e.g., HPV 6, 11), eventually potentially causing invasive disease such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, cervical cancers, genital cutaneous and mucosal squamous cell carcinomas (e.g., Bowen's disease) including penile carcinomas. Cervical cancer is the second or third leading cause of cancer deaths in epidemio-logical studies of adult women 1, 3, 5 . Pap smears are...