V

Squamous cell carcinoma

In Western countries, oesophageal carcinomas with squa-mous cell differentiation typically arise after many years of

>B ■ » ri tobacco and alcohol abuse. They frequently carry G:C >T:A mutations of the TP53 gene. Other causes include chronic mucosal injury through hot beverages and malnutrition, but the very high incidence rates observed in Iran and some African and Asian regions remain inexplicable.

Adenocarcinoma

Oesophageal carcinomas with glandular differentiation are typically located in the distal oesophagus and occur predominantly in white males of industrialized countries, with a marked tendency for increasing incidence rates. The most important aetiological factor is chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux lead-

ing to Barrett type mucosal metaplasia, the most common pre-

ing to Barrett type mucosal metaplasia, the most common pre-

, , -V

WHO histological classification of oesophageal tumours

Epithelial tumours

Squamous cell papilloma

Intraepithelial neoplasia2 Squamous

Glandular (adenoma)

Carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma Verrucous (squamous) carcinoma Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma Spindle cell (squamous) carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Mucoepidermoid carcinoma Adenoid cystic carcinoma Small cell carcinoma Undifferentiated carcinoma Others Carcinoid tumour

Non-epithelial tumours

8052/0'

8070/3 8051/3 8083/3 8074/3 8140/3 8560/3 8430/3 8200/3 8041/3 8020/3

8240/3

Non-epithelial tumours

Leiomyoma

8890/0

Lipoma

8850/0

Granular cell tumour

9580/0

Gastrointestinal stromal tumour

8936/1

benign

8936/0

uncertain malignant potential

8936/1

malignant

8936/3

Leiomyosarcoma

8890/3

Rhabdomyosarcoma

8900/3

Kaposi sarcoma

9140/3

Malignant melanoma

8720/3

Others

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