Macroscopy

Appendiceal EC-cell carcinoids are firm, greyish-white (yellow after fixation), and fairly well circumscribed, but not encapsulated, and measure usually less than 1 cm in diameter {1252}. Tumours > 2 cm are rare; most are located at the tip of the appendix {1254}. Goblet-cell carcinoids and mixed endocrine-exocrine carcino-

Fig. 5.11 Carcinoid tumour of appendix with typical yellow colouration.

mas of the appendix may be found in any portion of the appendix and appear as an area of whitish, sometimes mucoid induration without dilatation of the lumen. They range in size from 0.5 to 2.5 cm {442}.

Because of their diffusely infiltrative nature, goblet cell carcinoids tend not to form distinct tumours and their size generally cannot be assessed accurately. In a series of 33 cases {209} only two were suspected grossly; 11 involved the tip and 22 were circumferential.

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