Examination

Dorn Spinal Therapy

Spine Healing Therapy

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The neurological examination of the older child is essentially similar to the general neurological examination. Varying degrees of cooperation will determine the completeness with which various steps are performed. In general, for toddlers and

Table 5. Normal cerebrospinal fluid values

Preterm

Term

Child

Cell count

9 (0-25)

8.2 (0-22)

0-7

Protein

115 (65-150)

90 (20-170)

5-20

Glucose

50 (24-63)

52 (34-119)

40-80

% of serum glucose

55-105%

44-128%

50%

Opening pressure (mm)

<100

80-110

<180

young children, observation first is extremely helpful, especially if the child can be encouraged to play, run and perform normal activities. In this way, invaluable information regarding gait, strength and dexterity can be obtained.

General. Spinal curvature should be assessed by viewing the child in both the neutral standing position and with the spine flexed forward. The posterior thorax will be higher on the side of a convexity. Children should not have pain associated with spinal movement. Indeed, presence of spine pain without a known cause should be investigated in detail.

Cranial nerves. Most of the cranial nerves can be examined in small children. The one exception is the optic nerve, a complete assessment of which requires a formal Humphreys field test, which can be performed reliably only after the age of 10 or 12 years. If a visual abnormality is suspected, a referral to a pediatric ophthalmologist should be made promptly.

Motor. Mild deficits in small children can often be masked by compensatory behavior. Particular care should be taken to assess motor function and the use of the upper extremeties and hands.

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