Contents

Preface xi

1. Clinical Assessment of the Newborn, Infant and Older Child 1

Nalin Gupta and Heather J. Fullerton

Neurological Assessment of the Neonate (<1 Month) 1

Neurological Assessment of the Older Child 7

2. Diagnostic Imaging 9

Nathaniel A. Chuang

Technical Considerations 9

Basic Concepts for Interpretation of CT and MRI Studies 11

Trauma and Child Abuse 17

Hydrocephalus 19

Pediatric Brain Tumors 20

Congenital Malformations 20

Neurocutaneous Syndromes 21

Cerebrovascular Disease 21

Spinal Disorders 25

3. Neurotrauma 66

Nathan R. Selden

Craniocerebral Trauma 66

Spinal Trauma 84

Brachial Plexus Injury 93

4. Brain Tumors 95

Nalin Gupta and James T. Rutka

Classification of Brain Tumors 95

Posterior Fossa Tumors 99

Sellar Region Tumors 102

Suprantentorial Hemispheric Tumors 104

5. Neonatal Neurosurgery 110

Max C. Lee and DavidM. Frim

Initial Evaluation 110

Birth Injuries 110

Posthemorrhagic Hydrocephalus 113

Congenital Anomalies of the Brain and Spinal Cord 115

Congenital Tumors 116

Vascular Malformations 116

6. Hydrocephalus 117

DavidM. Frim and Nalin Gupta

Definitions 117

Physiology of CSF Production and Absorption 118

Clinical Presentation 119

Treatment 121

Shunt Malfunction 124

Shunt Infection 126

Other Issues in the Management of Shunted Hydrocephalus 128

7. Genetic Syndromes and Congenital Anomalies 130

Darrel Waggoner and William Dobyns

Classification 130

Defects of Organogenesis 130

Disorders of Cortical Organization 137

8. Spinal Dysraphism 143

Frank Acosta, Jr. and Nalin Gupta

Classification of Anomalies 143

Normal Embryology of the Spine and Spinal Cord 144

Myelomeningocele 145

Occult Spinal Dysraphism 151

Types of Occult Spinal Dysraphism 153

9. Craniofacial Surgery 161

McKay McKinnon and David M. Frim

General Principles 161

Craniosynostosis and Craniofacial Syndromes 161

Craniofacial Clefts and Skull-Base Anomalies 171

Craniofacial Tumors 172

Craniofacial Trauma 173

10. Functional Neurosurgery in the Child 175

Steven G. Ojemann, Matthew D. Smyth and Warwick J. Peacock

Movement Disorders in Children 175

Surgical Procedures for the Treatment of Spasticity 179

Dystonia 185

Seizure Disorders in Children 187

Surgical Treatment of Seizure Disorders 189

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