A number of features are observed that would be pathological in adults, but are often normal findings in children:
1. C2-3 or C3-4 may demonstrate "pseudosubluxation" of up to 4 mm in flexion.
2. A neurocentral synchondrosis may mimic a Type II odontoid fracture (through the base of the odontoid) in a child less than 8 years of age.
3. The anterior arch of C1 may have a persistent synchondrosis, mimicking a fracture.
4. The tip of the odontoid may fail to fuse with the odontoid proper, resulting in an ossiculum terminale persistens, which is generally a normal variant in a child.
5. The atlanto-dental interval between the anterior arch of C1 and the anterior cortex of the odontoid peg may reach as much as 5 mm during flexion in a normal child.
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