Birth injuries are divided into two categories: (1) those caused by normal forces of labor, and (2) those caused by obstetrical interventions. These interventions include vacuum extraction, forceps application, invasive fetal monitoring and ce-sarean section. Further subclassification include injuries involving the central nervous system (CNS) versus the peripheral nervous system and intracranial versus
Pediatric Neurosurgery, edited by David Frim and Nalin Gupta. ©2006 Landes Bioscience.
extracranial location. With increased awareness and improved practices, the incidence of all birth injuries appears to be declining.
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