Traumatology

D Generally, following hemorrhage in humans, a rise in osmolality is directly related to the glucose concentration in the plasma, not the result of an influx of sodium. All of the other statements are true. (Rogers MC, et al. Textbook of Pediatric Intensive Care, 3rd Edition pp. 1467-1470.) 2. C Catecholamines produce hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, increased oxygen consumption, and hyperkalemia, and a-stimulation reduces insulin and glucagon secretion. The overall effect of catecholamines on...

Hematology and oncology

A Trauma is the leading cause of death in the 1- to 15-year-old population. Neoplastic disease is second. The other responses are true. (Rogers MC, et al. Textbook of Pediatric Intensive Care, 3rd Edition pp. 2. D Infection is higher in patients with central lines than those without. Recent retrospective data suggests that there are no differences in infection rates between subcutaneously implanted versus externalized catheters. (Rogers, MC, et al. Textbook of Pediatric Intensive Care, 3rd...

Cardiovascular System

The following chapter will focus on the cardiovascular system. Pertinent questions, answers, and rationale will be reviewed. Answers for this chapter can be found beginning on page 115. Key Words Heart cardiovascular rhythm ventricles atrial. 1. All of the following are true regarding the interaction between respirations and circulation except a. The Mueller maneuver decreases afterload. b. The hemodynamic effects of changing intratho-racic pressure dominates over changing intrathoracic volume....

Info

_ Result(s) in elevation of pulmonary artery _ Protective mechanism(s) for the host. 79. Compliance is the relationship between changes in volume (AV) for a given change in the distending pressure (AP). Regarding this relationship, all of the following statements are true except a. Compliance of the lungs is determined by DV and the difference between alveolar pressure and pleural pressure. b. Compliance of the chest wall is determined by AV and the difference between alveolar pressure and...

Central nervous sysytem

A, E, E With central hypoventilation syndrome, apnea usually occurs during quiet sleep, however, it can happen during rapid eye movement sleep (REM). Included in questions 2 and 3 are some of the reorganized causes of central hypoventilation syndrome. (Rogers MC, et al. Textbook of Pediatric Intensive Care, 3rd Edition pp. 235-238.) 4. C, D Both achondroplasia and Arnold-Chiari malformation give rise to a mixed type of apnea, and neither typically causes central apnea. (Canfield P, et al....

Pharmocology and Toxicology

The following chapter will focus on pharmacology and toxicology. Pertinent questions, answers, and rationale will be reviewed. Answers for this chapter can be found beginning on page 148. Key Words Overdose antidote hemoperfusion hemodialysis lavage coma poison. 1. Presumptive, quantitative adjustments of drug regimens in order to compensate for anticipated variations in volume of distribution are usually not practical except with b. Iatrogenic volume expansion such as septic shock. 2. A...

Immunology

The following chapter will focus on immunology. Pertinent questions, answers, and rationale will be reviewed. Answers for this chapter can be found beginning on page 140. Key Words T-cell B-cell immunity bacteria complement antibiotics. 1. Which of the following statements least accurately describes the pattern of immunoglobulins (Igs) in the fetus, infant, and child a. The level of IgG in premature infants is directly proportional to gestational age in the preterm infant. b. IgG levels fall...

Metabolic disorders

B, C, A, D Slight elevation of ammonia is noted with organic acidemias however, this is usually minimal compared with the significant hyperammone-mia that is noted with urea cycle defects. Maple syrup urine disease (a disorder of branched chain amino leucine, isoleucine, and valine) is characterized by metabolic acidosis and ketosis and significant hypo-glycemia. The level of lactic acid will be significantly elevated with congenital lactic acidosis. (Fuhrman BP, et al. Pediatric Critical Care,...

Renal System

The following chapter will focus on the renal system. Pertinent questions, answers, and rationale will be reviewed. Answers for this chapter can be found beginning on page 132. Key Words Diuretics kidney failure bypass hypovolemia filtration. 1. The risk of development of acute renal failure after cardiac surgery is highest in 2. Which of the following causes vasodilation of the cortical vasculature b. Furosemide. d. Neither. 3. Clinical settings in which mannitol has definitely been shown to...

Respiratory System

The following chapter will focus on the respiratory system. Pertinent questions, answers, and rationale will be reviewed. Answers for this chapter can be found beginning on page 101. Key Words Lungs airway ventilator oxygen pulmonary. 1. Which of the following is true regarding endotracheal intubation in infants and children a. The presence of a Murphy eye side hole provides absolute protection against obstruction of the endotracheal tube. b. Tube obstruction in infants is as high as 30 . c....

Pharmacologytoxicology

D In this case, the lean body-weight (the 50th percentile of weight for age) is the appropriate weight to use. (Rowland M, Tozer TN. Clinical Pharmacokinetics Concept and Applications. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia pp. 100-110.) 2. C When drug accumulation is expected, which means that the ratio of dosing interval half-life is less than three, and when there is a need to establish a therapeutic level rapidly, then a loading dose is necessary. Loading dose Concentration x Volume of...