Improve Your Intelligence and IQ
Let's try to clarify this basic idea of statistics with a specific illustration. Consider an experiment that may have a direct bearing on how well you understand what's to come. We have written the book on the assumption that the average reader has an intelligence quotient (IQ) greater than 100. If we were wrong, then readers would not be able to decipher these ram-blings, and our royalties wouldn't buy us a Big Mac. So we'd like some re
Giannitrapani (1969) reported that the positive correlations between the alpha index and the full IQ and verbal IQ were marginally stronger when the EEG was recorded during mental arithmetic. Giannitrapani also reported that during mental multiplication, a moderate to strong positive relationship between performance IQ scale of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the alpha index when the EEG was found. During Giannitrapani's study each subject was given a mental multiplication problem that was adjusted for each subject so as to take a little over five seconds to solve. Giannitrapani noted that even though the tasks were objectively more difficult for the higher IQ subjects, mental multiplication produced less desynchronization of the alpha rhythm in individuals of higher IQ.
Generally, the early studies have reported that a low intelligence quotient (IQ) was related to slow alpha frequencies and the existence of delta and theta rhythms, while higher levels of intelligence was related to faster alpha frequencies and a lack of delta and theta rhythms (Vogel & Broverman, 1964), but later studies indicate that the relationship is more complex. If the EEG of the mature brain of young healthy adults is compared either with the developing brain, the aging brain or the brain which is affected by neurological diseases of various kinds, the conclusion is that
What can we learn about the neurobiological basis of intelligence by studying people with aberrations of intelligence Autism, mental retardation, and Down syndrome manifest a variety of intellectual deviations from low intelligence quotient (IQ) to aspects of genius. Most research on these disorders has focused
The International Classification of Impairments Disabilities and Handicaps as a taxonomic framework for mental
The fundamental global impairment is of the 'intellect', analogous to an organic body system in which lies the capacity to learn and reason. Intellectual impairment is measured, however inadequately, by intelligence tests, and summarized by the intelligence quotient ( IQ). This capacity is not immutable, and its measurement is often prejudiced by other factors. Intelligence tests should be standardized for specific populations. They remain useful if administered professionally and interpreted with caution.
A study from Israel found that children with SDB had lower scores on neuro-cognitive testing compared to controls but the scores improve after treatment (23). This prospective study of 39 children aged five to nine years underwent a battery of neurocognitive tests containing process-oriented intelligence scales. Children with SDB had lower scores compared with healthy children in some Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) subtests and in the general scale Mental Processing Composite, indicating impaired neurocognitive function. Six to 10 months after adenotonsillectomy, the children with OSAs demonstrated significant improvement in sleep characteristics, as well as in daytime behavior. Their neurocognitive performance improved considerably, reaching the level of the control group in the subtests Gestalt Closure, Triangles, Word Order, and the Matrix analogies, as well as in the K-ABC general scales, Sequential and Simultaneous Processing scales, and the Mental Processing...
The CPR performance of 107 children at approximately 6.5 years of age has also been studied using apparatus identical to that for monkeys. In these human studies, as previously mentioned, money (nickels) served as reinforcers. It was demonstrated that performance of the CPR task was highly significantly correlated with performance, verbal, and full scale IQ scores,8 with correlation coefficients ranging from -0.14 for choice response latencies (shorter latencies, i.e., faster responses, were associated with higher IQ scores) to 0.58 for accuracy of responding (greater accuracies were associated with higher IQ scores). Thus, performance of this task is clearly associated with level of subject intelligence as measured by traditional IQ tests. The TRD performance of 86 children at about 6.5 years of age has also been studied using apparatus identical to that for monkeys. In these human studies, as previously mentioned, money (nickels) served as reinforcers. It was demonstrated that...
Recent studies have provided evidence that coherent oscillations in different frequency bands, most notably theta and gamma, play a crucial role in the dynamic functional integration of brain structures involved in ongoing mental activity. Cognitive tasks typically produce desynchronization of alpha activity and enhancement of theta activity (e.g. Rugg & Dickens, 1982 Griinwald et al., 1999). More specifically, EEG synchrony in the lower frequency band (theta) appears to facilitate functional connections in tasks with high demand for WM and focussed attention (Anokhin et al., 1999). Anokhin et al. hypothesized that individuals who exhibit greater large-scale spatial EEG synchronization during cognitive tasks possess a greater capacity for establishing functional connections between specialized cortical regions involved in mental activity and would therefore show a better performance on intelligence tests. Lutzenberger et al (1992) found adults with higher IQ scores showed greater DCx...
Gasser, Von Lucadou-Muiller, Verleger and Bacher (1983) investigated the relationship between intelligence scores and EEG parameters in a group of normal and a group of mildly mentally retarded 10-13 year old children. They reported a low to moderate strength positive correlation between IQ scores and the peak alpha frequency over the parietal and occipital areas for the mentally retarded children, but not the normal children. Anokhin and Vogel (1996) have also reported that higher IQ scores were associated with an increased AF, but this time in a sample of normal, healthy adults. They hypothesised that the pattern of the correlations they found implied that non-verbal inductive reasoning abilities as assessed by Ravens Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) may be related to neurophysiological properties of the frontal areas of the brain, whereas, the significant correlations between AF and the verbal tasks showed a more diffuse topographical distribution. Neubauer, Sange, and...
The amnestic syndrome A marked chronic impairment in memory in the absence of other major cognitive deficits
The classical, most widely cited case of a global amnesia is that of H.M. He became amnestic in 1953 at the age of 23, following 'a frankly experimental operation' (Scoville and Milner 1957) to alleviate uncontrollable epilepsy. The operation removed bilaterally the medial temporal polar cortex, most of the amygdaloid complex, the entorhinal cortex, and approximately half of the rostrocaudal extent of the intraventricular portion of the hippocampal formation (Corkin et al. 1997). The operation reduced the frequency of seizures, but produced a severe, permanent anterograde amnesia, with only a limited effect on memory of events prior to the operation (and no effect on more remote events). Postoperationally, H.M. scored above average on a general intelligence test, showed no decline on immediate memory ( capacity), but was unable to store any new declarative information. He was, however, capable of learning new skills. Thus even in this severe case, the amnesia was not really 'global'.
Individual intellectual capacity is graded by reference to the intelligence quotient ( IQ) which is defined as the ratio of a subject's intelligence to the average intelligence for his or her age. The assessment of intelligence is considered in Chapteri1.10.3.J. If the development of intellectual performance does not reach an IQ level of 70, the condition is called 'mental retardation'. This condition can be subdivided according to its severity. Four levels are recognized in ICD-10
Other studies have provided evidence for an ERP latency-IQ relationship. In a notable experiment, Schucard and Horn (1972) reported correlations between latency measures of the ERP and a battery of psychological tests designed to measure crystallised and fluid abilities, as well as factors relating to speed and level measurements of fluid ability (see Furneaux 1952, 1961). One hundred and eight subjects (60 males, 48 females, with ages ranging from 16 to 68) attended three ERP conditions in which the level of attention and arousal was systematically manipulated from a requirement to firstly to respond (high arousal) secondly not to respond but to count (medium arousal) and, thirdly, not to respond or count but to attend (low arousal). Nearly all the correlations between the IQ tests and latency were negative, ranging from -.15 to -.32, with shorter latency associated with higher IQs. Most significant correlations with IQ were obtained with latencies of the later ERP components in the...
Solving (based on existing neuropsychological data) would also be the likely sites for intelligence-metabolism correlations. For example, research indicates that certain frontal and prefrontal brain areas are involved in directing attention, planning, holding stimuli in memory, and performing complex stimulus transformations (e.g. Goldman-Rakic, 1987 Owen, Downes, Sahakian, Polkey, & Robbins, 1990 Posner & Peterson, 1990 Roland & Friberg, 1985)-processes required to solve items on many common intelligence tests. Yet, despite the logical tie-in between certain specific brain regions and intelligence, PET results to date suggest more diffuse whole-brain relationships. To summarize, aptitude for complex problem solving seems to be associated with the whole brain rather than theoretically appropriate brain structures, and aptitude level is negatively correlated with brain glucose utilization (Larson, 1995). More recent studies that have employed technologies that more directly assess...
In our discussion of the z test, we used as a dependent variable (DV) an intelligence quotient (IQ) test, which has a known mean and standard deviation (SD), in order to compare our sample of interest namely, readers of this magnificent opus to the general population. We did not have to scrape up a control group of nonreaders for comparison because we knew in advance the true mean and SD of any control group we might draw from the general population.
For all children, obtaining the developmental history is mandatory. A series of screening questions for the parents will usually uncover any gross delays, but a detailed developmental assessment is often necessary to delineate the exact deficits. Standard scales used for this purpose include the Denver Developmental Scale, the Bayley Scales, the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Important features of all developmental milestones include the absolute level attained, the loss of specific abilities and the temporal pattern (e.g., slower than normal, or a plateau). In school-age children, a record of school performance including grades, special classes, repeated grades, or a requirement for special education will often provide an important clue regarding intellectual ability. Finally, social and interpersonal problems are often the first signs of a more significant problem.
Van Rooy et al. (2000, 2001) has also found evidence that the brains of individuals who have average scores on an intelligence test have to 'work harder' to solve problems than the brains of individuals with higher intelligence scores. Van Rooy et al. (2001) found that rehearsing spatial information in working memory task, was associated with an increased in SSVEP latency in the frontal areas, and an increase in SSVEP amplitude and decreased SSVEP latency in the parietal and occipital areas. These changes in the SSVEP were found to be greater in magnitude for those participants who scored higher on the WAIS-3. Van Rooy et al. (2001) speculated that high intelligence may be characterised by the quality of the frontal executive processes and the ability to store and rehearse spatial information in working memory in the posterior areas of the brain.
Anderson (in press) recently completed an analytic review of the brain size IQ relationship. Anderson reviewed studies of brain size and intelligence and reported positive correlations of anywhere from r 0.35 to r 0.69. Autism is frequently associated with macrocephaly or a big brain. Autism has a relatively low incidence of mental retardation when compared to Down syndrome, and some individuals show an exceptionally high IQ. Within autism itself, a larger brain has been reported to have a higher IQ (Filipek, 1992). Down syndrome frequently results in mental retardation, and Down syndrome has been reported to have a decreased brain size (Haier et al., 1995). Idiopathic mental retardation has also been reported to have a decreased brain size (Haier et al., 1995). While there is a definite link between brain size and IQ, the nature of why larger brains go with higher IQ is not apparent.
As the acquisition of a learning set implies mastering some type or another of abstract rules, it was soon adapted as an intelligence test in comparative animal psychology. For the purpose of comparison, a useful convention is to measure the mean per cent correct on trial 2 of a given problem as a function of the number of problems experienced of the same type (Figure 41 success on trial 2 reflects single trial learning because trial 1 is the instruction trial). The idea is that the more problems required to form a set, the duller is the brain. This type of assay has been applied to estimate the difference in intelligence in phylogeny, ontogeny, and among individual members of a species, even in Homo sapiens (Hayes et al. 1953 Harlow 1959 Warren 1966 Doty et al. 1967 Hodos 1970). Learning sets have also been used as model behaviours to explore the role of identified brain organs, such as cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and striatum, in advanced learning capabilities in various species...
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Increasing Your IQ
How Would You Like To Amaze People With Your Intelligence? Increase your IQ and get prepared to receive accolades in every sphere of life. Do you feel dejected every time your boss praises a colleague for an intelligent professional move? Do you want to become a crucial resource to your company?