One approach for effective weight reduction are very low calorie diets (VLCDs). These diets provide 600-800 kcal/day given as calorie-controlled, vitamin and mineral-fortified liquid meals taken as the sole nutrient source.
VLCDs have been proven effective in obese patients and also in obese subjects with T2D. In diabetic patients VLCDs induce weight loss and improve glycemic control. A meta-analysis showed that treatment with VLCDs over 12 weeks decreased body weight by 9.6% of initial body weight and fasting plasma glucose values decreased to about 50% of initial values after 2 weeks and remained low for the 12 weeks of treatment . Concomitant with the decrease of plasma glucose concentrations glycosylated hemoglobin levels and insulin levels decreased. Furthermore, excellent acceptance, compliance and safety are documented .
While VLCDs in obese subjects with T2D induce remarkable results of short-term weight loss, some observations show that VLCDs despite substantial initial weight loss do not maintain weight loss in the long term . It can be assumed that the liquid diets will not be maintained long-term because subjects on VLCDs are excluded from their normal daily activities.
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