Utilization of Low GI Foods in Type-1 and/or Type-2 Diabetic Patients At least three of our studies have addressed this topic:
• The first one published in 1988 by Fontvieille et al.  was done on a small group of type-1 diabetic patients. This study demonstrated that 3 weeks of a low GI food-enriched diet compared to a high GI diet, in a crossover design, induced a significant improvement in plasma fructoseamine levels in spite of a small but significant decrease in daily insulin needs.
• Another study by the same authors  was conducted with the same crossover methodology in a mixed type-1 and type-2 population of diabetic subjects over a period of 5 weeks. This study showed a reduction of 11% in fasting glycemia, 13% in fructoseamine and 20% in triglycerides.
• Our most recent study by Rizkalla et al.  was conducted in a group of 11 type-2 diabetic subjects and demonstrated that a 4-week low GI diet resulted in: (1) an improvement of plasma glucose control, (2) a decrease of whole body glucose utilization (measured by the euglycemic hyperinsu-linemic clamp), (3) a decrease of some lipid profiles and (4) a reduction in the capacity for fibrinolysis.
In slightly overweight subjects, however, we demonstrated that 5 weeks of low GI foods were able to decrease total fat mass and to improve the plasma lipid profile rather than to improve plasma glucose control .
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