Overlapping with the ideas above about the role of the cytoskeleton, there are other membrane bending processes which involve localised blebbing of the membrane by the assembly of specialised proteins recruited to patches of membrane from the cytosol (Fig. 3c). The main example here is clathrin, a cytosolic protein which can polymerise around lipid membrane to form a spherical geodesic cage  and which is present in human red cells . It forms a protein exoskeleton, a buckyball lined by a sheet of lipid on the inside. It does this in company with other proteins, some of which (AP50, AP180) have been identified in the red cell proteome .
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