Human Anatomy and Physiology Study Course
This view of dreams derives from Jung's conception of the mind as a self-regulating system. As a medical student, Jung had learned that human physiology is governed by a system of checks and balances which ensure that any tendency to go too far in one direction is compensated by an opposing swing in the other. Thus, if if the blood becomes too alkaline, various mechanisms are set in operation which ensure that the kidney excretes more alkali and retains acid. This physiological tendency to seek equilibrium is known as 'homeostasis', and is dependent on the cybernetic mechanism known as negative feedback.
Recalling that the FDC Act was written in 1938, it becomes obvious that major technological findings have substantially increased our knowledge about human physiology, as well as product formulation and function 1,2,4,5 . Now clinical techniques are available that will demonstrate how substances such as water and petrolatum, once thought to be inactive, alter the structure and function of skin 5 . For practical reasons, the FDA does not require such substances to be reclassified as drugs. Instead, it typically determines when cosmetic products need to be reclassified based on manufacturers' claims about the products.
Iron is the most abundant transition metal occurring in nature. This element also constitutes the most important of the required trace elements in human nutrition. The crucial role of iron in human physiology has been recognized since antiquity when the ancient Greeks prescribed iron salt supplements in the diet to improve muscular weakness in injured warriors (1). Iron is essential for DNA and RNA synthesis, electron transport, and oxygen metabolism in most microorganisms, plants, and animals. Absorption, storage, mobilization, and excretion of iron are delicately regulated by a number of interrelated control processes that have not been definitively identified (1).
Although stress is often thought to be a product of an overcharged modern society, it has been a constant companion since time immemorial. Primitive humans did not have to deal with rush-hour traffic, but they did have to worry about where their next meal would come from and whether a predator was lurking behind a nearby bush. stress is so basic that the human body has developed an elaborate physiological mechanism to deal with it. The fight or flight reaction is the body's primitive but adaptive response to stress. As society has developed, the causes of stress have multiplied exponentially, but human physiology has remained basically the same. As a result, the instinctive response to stress may be inappropriate for the complex pressures of modern life. In effect, cave people are now masquerading in modern dress, still primed for fight or flight.
Under the law, prescription pharmaceuticals have traditionally been considered unavoidably unsafe (Conk, 1990). Standard pharmaceutical products are not just risk-reducing, they are also risk-producing. Because of inherent risks, pharmaceutical products may fail to produce a desired therapeutic effect and or they may cause an undesired adverse effect. Harm from drug use may occur even when the product is appropriately designed and manufactured when it is accompanied by adequate warnings and when it is prescribed and dispensed consistent with the professional standard of care. These adverse drug effects have generally been considered regrettable and perhaps tragic, but they have also been viewed as nonpre-ventable and legally have been deemed the fault of no one. The harm caused by such nonpreventable adverse drug effects has been viewed as the unfortunate but necessary cost of scientific uncertainty (Noah, 1990). The only way to avoid nonpreventable adverse effects would be to remove...
The best correlative evidence for an influence of photoperiod on human physiology was a survey by Roenneberg and Aschoff (1990) (10).The authors analysed hundreds of thousands of births spanning the globe over part of the last century up to the time of publication. They found very strong correlations, especially in the older data, of conception rate (A conception A time) with deviation of photoperiod from 12L12D. Much of the correlation was lost, or the rhythm changed shape, in the middle of this century, suggesting that the advent of widespread artificial lighting, central heating and air conditioning may have eliminated to some extent this relationship. Their data lead to the conclusion that in the absence of an artificial environment, the maximum human birthrate is found in the spring with sometimes a second peak in autumn. Thus we are, from this correlative evidence, long day breeders. If this is true, then long duration mela-tonin should be inhibitory to human reproductive...
Hemodynamics in regional circulatory beds and local vascular reactivity. In Comprehensive Human Physiology, R. Greger and U. Windhorst, eds., Vol. 2, pp. 1917-1939. Berlin SpringerVerlag. Reference text for detailed information about physiology of regional microcirculatory beds.
Pharmacology, as a separate and vital discipline, has interests that distinguish it from the other basic sciences and pharmacy. Its primary concern is not the cataloguing of the biological effects that result from the administration of chemical substances but rather the dual aims of (1) providing an understanding of normal and abnormal human physiology and biochemistry through the application of drugs as experimental tools and (2) applying to clinical medicine the information gained from fundamental investigation and observation.
At the Togus VA Medical Center, with the approval of their IRB and volunteer patients undergoing lower extremity amputation, stimulation studies were carried out at 0.2 ms pulse duration with 20 pps frequency, with a portable, battery-operated, calibrated constant-current unit (Cordis Corp., Miami, Florida, Model 910 A). The pulse amplitudes for producing maximal stimulation and contraction in the largest of the nerves (medial sciatic) ranged from 0.6 to 2.5 mA, which falls well within the range of the Cochlear receiver-stimulating unit to be used 9, 10 . Using the Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, first edition edited by McMinn and Hutchings (Yearbook Medical Publishers, Inc., Chicago, Illinois), whose dissections were reproduced as life-size photographs, allowed for measurements of the diameters to be made at different points along the nerves. These measurements were in relatively close agreement with the amputated nerve diameters of the nine volunteer patients 10 .
The evolution of skin pigmentation is linked with that of hairlessness, and to comprehend both these stories, we need to page back in human history. Human beings have been evolving as an independent lineage of apes since at least seven million years ago, when our immediate ancestors diverged from those of our closest relatives, chimpanzees. Because chimpanzees have changed less over time than humans have, they can provide an idea of what human anatomy and physiology must have been like. Chimpanzees' skin is light in color and is covered by hair over most of their bodies. Young animals have pink faces, hands, and feet and become freckled or dark in these areas
Hormonal interrelationships between the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and testes. Solid arrows, Excitatory effects dashed arrows, inhibitory effects. GnRH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone LH, luteinizing hormone. (Modified with permission from Fox SI. Human Physiology (3rd ed.). Copyright 1990 Wm. C. Brown, Dubuque, IA. All rights reserved.)
The Bioinformatics Research Network (BIRN) is a collaborative effort, which focuses on research and understanding of brain structure and function. Mouse BIRN studies mouse brain in order to provide insight into neuroscience, human and otherwise. One of the goals of Mouse BIRN is to create an integrated anatomical atlas, which provides spatial correlation for data sets ranging from CT, MR, bright-field microscopy, confo-cal microscopy, as well as molecular data such as genomic and protenomic data. The atlas also serves as a visual-based query system. Maryann Martone, Ph.D., at University of California at San Diego has been using two-photon confocal microscopy to study fluorescence labeled mouse brain sections. This project provides an opportunity to use distributed computing capability for the large amount of data generated by Martone's group. In addition, it provides an opportunity to exercise the system against microscopy modalities other than bright-field light microscopy.
The major parts of a fish's skeleton, shown in Figure 39-11, are the skull, spinal column, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, and ribs. The spinal column is made up of many bones, called vertebrae, with cartilage pads between each. The spinal column also partly encloses and protects the spinal cord. The pectoral girdle supports the pectoral fins, and the pelvic girdle supports the pelvic fins. In a human skeleton, the pectoral girdle is the shoulder and its supporting bones, and the pelvic girdle is the hips. A fish's skull is composed of a large number of bones (far more than are in the human skull) and is capable of a wide range of movements. Note the pectoral fin rays and pelvic fin rays that are key characteristics of ray-finned fishes.
As shown in Figure 45-3, the human skeleton is composed of two parts the axial skeleton and the appendicular (AP-uhn-DIK-yuh-luhr) skeleton. The bones of the skull, ribs, spine, and sternum form the axial skeleton. The bones of the arms and legs, along with the scapula, clavicle, and pelvis, make up the appendicular skeleton.
They kept it with them for two years, wrapped in a sack after that, it was obtained by Floyd Jones of Casper, Wyoming, who exhibited it in the 1930s, and then Ivan P. Goodman, who exhibited it in the 1940s. At some point, it was allegedly brought to anthropologist Harry L. Shapiro at the American Museum of Natural History, who examined it for a month. X rays proved it had a human skeleton, and there was a suggestion of undigested food in the stomach. The bones of the right shoulder apparently were broken, and the spine had been injured. Goodman died in 1950, and the mummy passed into the hands of Leonard Waller, after which it was lost sometime in the 1970s.
At the start of this book, the concepts of normal digestion and proper food combining were addressed. It was also mentioned that large amounts of water with a meal were not desirable, and could inhibit normal digestion. This is a bit ironic, since many individuals actually think that drinking a lot of water with meals is a good digestive habit. This is not the case. Even though most foods have very large amounts of water in them, the concept of having just enough water in the stomach at the time of digestion must be addressed. As with just about every other rule in human physiology, too much is just as undesirable as too little. Water will certainly be absorbed fairly quickly, but it is still very capable of minimizing or
Essentials of Human Physiology
This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.