Parasites And How To Eliminate Them Naturally
The origin of human parasites in Iceland is discussed and historical information reviewed. Furthermore, the past and present status of endemic and imported human endo- and ectoparasites, recorded in Iceland so far, is reviewed. Several zoonotic parasites which have not been confirmed in humans and non-host specific species, which are capable of causing irritations on human skin, are also mentioned. Most endemic parasites are shortly reviewed. The reference list reflects research on human parasites in Iceland.
Until the middle of the eighteenth century, however, little was known about human parasites in Iceland. Olafsson and Palsson, who travelled in the country from 1752 to 1757 and systematically collected contemporary information on the natural history, reported the presence of some human parasites (Olafsson 1981). Somewhat later, Mohr (1786) also reported some human parasites. Also, the General of Health in north Iceland, from 1775 to 1801, included some information on human parasites in his 'Therapy book for the general public' (Petursson 1834). However, during most of the nineteenth century, scarce additional information was published on human parasites in Iceland.
The water used to handle or wash fruits and vegetables must be continually sanitized during the workday, particularly if the water is recycled. Moreover, the sanitizer must be present where the unwashed product enters the water system to minimize the chances for an internalization of hazardous microorganisms at the initial contact point. Highly reactive chemicals such as ozone 68 may be too unstable for maintenance of adequate residuals. Currently, hypochlorous acid from solutions of sodium hypochlorite, liquefied elemental chlorine, or solid powder or pellets of calcium hypochlorite best combines efficacy, speed of action, and stability for minimizing internalization hazards at packinghouses. Moreover, residues from the chlorinated water treatment either quickly dissipate from treated products or are harmless salts. Unfortunately, water chlorination cannot make badly contaminated surface waters safe to use for handling and washing produce as it is not effective against the resting...
The diagnosis of Diphyllobothrium infection is based upon detection of the characteristic egg in the stool of the worm carrier. Due to the enormous production of eggs the diagnosis is usually rapid and egg concentrations techniques are usually not needed. There is evidence for short-term periodicity, however, in the egg production by the parasite and the egg release may temporarily cease (Kamo et al. 1986). In suspected cases, therefore, faecal samples should be taken and examined with intervals. As the morphology of the Diphyllobothrium egg is very characteristic, there is no problem with differential diagnosis from other human parasites. It is impossible, however, to distinguish between different Diphyllobothrium species on the basis of egg size and morphology. The tapeworm anaemia is diagnosed from changes in the blood picture and bone marrow. For differential diagnosis genuine pernicious anaemia has to be considered.
With intracellular GSH concentrations up to 30 nmol mg of protein. However, the relationship between cellular glutathione concentrations and cell numbers was complex, with numbers of both subsets declining at intracellular glutathione concentrations between 30 and 50 nmol mg of protein. The study also revealed that cell numbers were responsive to long-term changes in GSH content. When the subjects engaged in a program of intensive physical exercise daily for 4 weeks, a fall in glutathione concentrations occurred. Individuals with gluta-thione concentrations in the optimal range before exercise, who experienced a fall in concentration after exercise, showed a 30 fall in CD4+ T cell numbers. The decline in T cell number was prevented by administration of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC is metabolized to cysteine, see later section). This study suggests that immune cell function may be sensitive to a range of intracellular sulfhydryl compounds including glutathione and cysteine. In HIV+...
As already mentioned it is expected that the Icelandic human parasite fauna, which probably remained stable until the twentieth century, has, through the centuries, resembled the endemic fauna of Scandinavia and the British Isles. The absence of certain species might be a result of the isolation of the country or due to the lack of necessary intermediate hosts. During the twentieth century, however, the High standard of hygiene and medical services, use of effective drugs and insecticides, good general education, and construction of modern houses with closed effluent system are among the factors that have made it difficult for most human parasites to establish themselves or sustain in Iceland.
The best-studied member is G. intestinalis, a human parasite and the causative agent of the waterborne disease giardiasis. However, the early-branching position of diplomonads in molecular phylogenies is almost certainly a long-branch attraction artefact resulting from their extremely divergent sequences (Embley and Hirt 1998 Hashimoto et al. 1998 Roger 1999 Simpson et al. 2002 Figs. 10.3, 10.4). Ultrastructural data strongly suggest they instead belong in the Excavata (Simpson and Roger 2004 Fig. 10.2).
Giardia is the first protozoan parasite of man discovered as early as 1681 by Antony van Leeuwenhoek and described later by Lambl in 1859. It is a member of order Diplomonadida belonging to class Zoomastigophorea. The taxonomic name of the organism has been subjected, during the past years, to many changes. As many as seven different binomial labels of the parasite can be traced in the past. Giardia intestinalis and G. lamblia used currently are synonymous names for the human parasite, which, together with parasites of wild and domestic mammals, belong to G. duodenalis morphological group (Filice 1952). The recent research work provides data on Giardia being in the position of a 'missing link' between prokaryotes and eukaryotes and data indicating genetic heterogeneity of isolates suggesting that a human parasite is not a single species but may represent a species complex (Andrews et al. 1989 Kabnik and Peattie 1991).