Vitamin B3

The transfer of ADP-ribose moieties from B3 (niacin) derived NAD to arginine, lysine, or asparagine residues of nucleoproteins involved in DNA repair and replication is catalyzed by poly-ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs). Five or more different PARPs exist, and in the region of a double-strand DNA break, hundreds of ADP-ribose molecules are polymerized per minute. It is therefore not surprising that a deficiency of vitamin B3 leads to DNA instability.

Biologically important antioxidant carotenoids

ß-Carotene

Cryptoxanthin

Figure 3.4. Figure showing the biologically important antioxidant carotenoids. f-Carotene status reflects a diet rich in fruit and vegetables and is an important cellular antioxidant, although it can also act as a pro-oxidant in excess. It also acts as a provitamin A nutrient, providing the body with this essential fat-soluble vitamin after intestinal hydrolysis by carotene dioxygenase. Lutein is concentrated in the macular of the eye, where it protects the retina by neutralizing free radicals. Lycopene is a potent antiox-idant found in tomato products and is thought to protect cells against malignant change. Carotenoids are considered to be extremely beneficial nutrients with substantial health benefits.

Lutein

Figure 3.4. Figure showing the biologically important antioxidant carotenoids. f-Carotene status reflects a diet rich in fruit and vegetables and is an important cellular antioxidant, although it can also act as a pro-oxidant in excess. It also acts as a provitamin A nutrient, providing the body with this essential fat-soluble vitamin after intestinal hydrolysis by carotene dioxygenase. Lutein is concentrated in the macular of the eye, where it protects the retina by neutralizing free radicals. Lycopene is a potent antiox-idant found in tomato products and is thought to protect cells against malignant change. Carotenoids are considered to be extremely beneficial nutrients with substantial health benefits.

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