Preface x Acknowledgments xi Introduction xii

Chapter 1—Defining Important Concepts 1

1.1 Key Concepts in Molecular Biology for the Study of Human Nutrition / 1

1.2 The Inheritance of Genetic Packets of Information / 9

1.3 A Brief Overview of Evolutionary Biology and the Ascent of Man / 10

1.4 The -omics Revolution / 13

Chapter 2—Molecular Mechanisms of Genetic Variation Linked to Diet 19

2.1 A Brief History of the Human Diet / 19

2.2 The Role of Milk in Human Evolution / 19

2.3 Micronutrients and the Evolution of Skin Pigmentation / 21

2.4 Micronutrients Optimize Gametogenesis and Reproductive Fecundity / 25

2.5 Direct Dietary Selection of a Human Metabolomic Profile / 29

2.6 The Evolution of Taste as a Survival Mechanism / 34

2.7 The Mystery of Alcohol Dehydrogenase Polymorphisms and Ethanol Toxicity / 36

2.8 Evolution of Xenobiotic Metabolism in Humans / 37

Chapter 3—Essential Nutrients and Genomic Integrity:

Developmental and Degenerative Correlates 40

3.1 Micronutrients and Genomic Stability and Function / 40

Chapter 4—Nutrients and Cerebral Function in Human Evolution 51

4.1 Human Encephalisation May be Linked to an Evolutionary Reduction in Gut Mass / 51

4.2 Weaning and Brain Development / 52

4.3 Micronutrients and the Cerebral Basis of Spirituality and Social Structure / 54

4.4 Pharmacotoxicology of Plants and Cultural Evolution / 56

Chapter 5—The Evolution of Micronutrient Metabolism 58

5.1 Antioxidants, Evolution, and Human Health / 58

Chapter 6—Evolved Refinement of the Human Lifecycle Based on Nutritional Criteria 62

6.1 Human Breast Milk—An Evolved Food / 62

6.2 Conflict between Parent and Offspring over Nutrient Requirements / 65

6.3 Natural Selection for Foraging Efficiency / 70

6.4 Evolution of Senescence / 71

Chapter 7—The Evolution of Human Disease 74

7.1 The Conflict between Agriculture and Ancestral Genes / 74

7.2 Obesity: A Chronic Plague of our Affluent Societies / 79

7.3 Prion Protein Locus and Human Evolution: The Link Between Variant Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease and Cannibalism / 80

Chapter 8—Contemporary Dietary Patterns that Work: The Mediterranean Diet 82

8.1 Tomatoes / 82

8.4 Bioflavonoids / 84

Chapter 9—Some Non-Micronutrient Essential and Nonessential Nutrients with Molecular and Possible Evolutionary Impact 88

9.1 Lecithins / 88

9.2 Lipid-Derived First Messengers—The Eicosanoids / 91

9.3 Isoflavones—Genomic and Nongenomic Influence at the Estrogen Receptor / 93

9.4 Phytic Acid / 94

Chapter 10—Natural Food Toxins and the Human Diet 97

10.1 Dietary Zootoxins / 97

10.2 Dietary Phytotoxins / 101

Chapter 11—Nutrigenomics 102

11.1 What is Nutrigenomics? / 102

11.2 Genetic Buffering Underpins Nutrigenomic Relationships / 104

Chapter 12—The Evolution of Protein Function 110

Chapter 13—Leading Edge Laboratory Tools in Nutrigenomics and Human Evolutionary Studies 113

13.1 Denaturing HPLC / 113

13.2 DNA Sequencing / 113

13.3 Nucleic Acid Microchip Techniques / 114

13.4 The Polymerase Chain Reaction / 115

13.5 Protein Mass Spectrometry / 118

13.6 Bioinformatics / 119

References 123

Index 133

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Reducing Blood Pressure Naturally

Reducing Blood Pressure Naturally

Do You Suffer From High Blood Pressure? Do You Feel Like This Silent Killer Might Be Stalking You? Have you been diagnosed or pre-hypertension and hypertension? Then JOIN THE CROWD Nearly 1 in 3 adults in the United States suffer from High Blood Pressure and only 1 in 3 adults are actually aware that they have it.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment