• Corticosteroids generally of little value.

• Chlorambucil or cyclophosphamide (greatest value when there is underlying B-cell lymphoma, occasionally helpful in 1° CHAD).

• Plasma exchange may help in some cases.

• If blood transfusion required use in-line blood warmer.

• Splenectomy occasionally useful (note: liver is main site of RBC sequestration of C3b-coated RBCs).

• Infectious CHAD generally self-limiting.

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