Seen in

• Haemolytic blood transfusion reactions.

• Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia.

• Drug-induced haemolysis (some).

Warm antibody induced


2° to lymphoproliferative disease e.g. CLL, NHL

2° to other autoimmune diseases e.g. SLE

Cold antibody induced


Cold haemagglutinin disease (CHAD) 2° to Mycoplasma infection Infectious mononucleosis Lymphoma

Paroxysmal cold haemoglobinuria


2° to viral infection

Congenital or tertiary syphilis

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