Other clinical manifestations

• Migraine, visual disturbances.

• Thrombocytopenia.

• Livedo reticularis.

• Heart valve disease.

• Catastrophic widespread intravascular thrombosis is reported. Laboratory diagnosis

1. Must double spin or filter plasma to remove all platelets and prevent false negative result.

2. Coagulation screen: APTT maybe prolonged and does not correct with normal plasma. Normal result does not rule out the condition as different reagents have different sensitivity. PT usually normal unless hypoprothrombinaemia is present.

4. Dilute Russell's viper venom time (DRVVT).

5. Exner test— kaolin clotting time: platelet extract or excess phospholipid corrects the abnormal test and confirms antiphospholipid defect.

6. aCL is detected using an immunoassay technique and is quantified.

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