Inhibitors, spontaneous or post-treatment, are reported against most other coagulation factors (V, XI and XII, Prothrombin, XI, VII and X); all are very rare. Factor V antibodies may arise in congenitally deficient patients following treatment or spontaneously following antibiotics, infection, blood transfusion. Post-operative cases may develop as a result of exposure to haemostatic agents contaminated with bovine factor V, e.g. fibrin glue. Most are low titre and transient. Treat with FFP and platelets (a source of factor V).

Heparin-like inhibitors are reported in patients with malignant disease, following chemotherapy (e.g. suramin, mithromycin) and may cause bleeding. Protamine sulphate neutralisation in vitro and in vivo is a feature of this inhibitor.

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