Haematological effects of nonhaemic tumours for leukaemias

lymphomas and MDS see following sections)

• Marrow infiltration may be evident at the time of presentation (most commonly neuroblastoma, less commonly Ewing's sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma).

• Associated with anaemia, occasionally other cytopenias. Blood count hardly ever normal if marrow involved.

• Peripheral blood may show leucoerythroblastic picture, but not as commonly in adult cancers metastasising to bone marrow.

• Non-haemic tumours appear on cytomorphology as poorly differentiated fragile blast cells, often in sheets or clumps (unlike leukaemic blasts).

• Marrow infiltration may arise as a late event in terminally progressive disease in other tumours, including CNS malignancies, PNETS and germ cell tumours.

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