False ve results

• HbS <20% (e.g. following exchange blood transfusion).

Sickle test not recommended as a screening test in pregnancy as it will not detect other Hb variants that interact with HbS e.g. |3 thalassaemia trait. Standard Hb electrophoresis of at-risk groups should be performed (and of all pregnant women if a high local ethnic population).

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The peripheral blood film in anaemias 44

Anaemia in renal disease 46

Anaemia in endocrine disease 48

Anaemia in joint disease 50

Anaemia in gastrointestinal disease 52

Anaemia in liver disease 54

Iron deficiency anaemia 56

Vitamin B12 deficiency 60

Folate deficiency 62

Other causes of megaloblastic anaemia 64

Anaemia in other deficiency states 66

Haemolytic syndromes 68

Genetic control of haemoglobin production 70

Sickling disorders 72

HbS-new therapies 76

Sickle cell trait (HbAS) 78

Other sickling disorders 80

Other haemoglobinopathies 82

Unstable haemoglobins 84

Thalassaemias 86

a thalassaemia 86

b thalassaemia 88

Other thalassaemias 92

Hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin 93

Hb patterns in haemoglobin disorders 94

Non-immune haemolysis 96

Hereditary spherocytosis 98

Hereditary elliptocytosis 100

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency 102

Pyruvate kinase deficiency 104

Other red cell enzymopathies 106

Drug-induced haemolytic anaemia 108

Methaemoglobinaemia 110

Microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (MAHA) 112

Acanthocytosis 114

Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia 116

Cold haemagglutinin disease (CHAD) 118

Leucoerythroblastic anaemia 120

Aplastic anaemia 122

Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria 124

Pure red cell aplasia 126

Iron overload 128

Transfusion haemosiderosis 130

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