Cytogenetics

• Using conventional techniques abnormal karyotypes found in 30-50%; heterogeneous pattern and complex abnormalities are common.

• FISH techniques demonstrate aneuploidy in nearly all patients:

- Abnormalities involving 14q32 (Ig heavy chain locus) in 60-75% (esp. non-hyperdiploid karyotypes): t(11;14), t(4;14), t(14;16) and non-recurrent.

- Hyperdiploidy in 50-60% (trisomy 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 19).

- del(17p;13.1): loss of p53 tumour suppressor gene also occurs in MM.

• Prognostic value

- Poor prognosis: t(4;14), t(14;16), del(17p), del(13), hypodiploidy.

- Favourable prognosis: others including t(11;14).

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