Common abnormalities

• Partial gain e.g. 9q+ or partial loss e.g. 5q- .

• Translocation—material repositioned to another chromosome; usually reciprocal e.g. t(9;22)—the Philadelphia translocation.

• Inversion—part of chromosome runs in opposite direction e.g. inv(16) in M4Eo.

• Many translocations involve point mutations known as oncogenes, e.g. BCR, ras, myc, bcl-2.

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