Causes

• Infection (bacterial, viral, fungal, spirochaetal, rickettsial).

• Inflammation (trauma, infarction, vasculitis, rheumatoid disease, burns).

• Chemicals e.g. drugs, hormones, toxins, haemopoietic growth factors e.g. G-CSF, GM-CSF, adrenaline, corticosteroids, venoms.

• Physical agents e.g. cold, heat, burns, labour, surgery, anaesthesia.

• Haematological e.g. myeloproliferative disease, CML, PPP (primary proliferative polycythaemia), myelofibrosis, chronic neutrophilic leukaemia.

• Other malignancies.

• Cigarette smoking.

• Post-splenectomy.

• Chronic bleeding.

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