Acquired RBC defects causing congenital haemolytic anaemia

- Congenital TORCH infections (Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex), also rare but serious are malaria (can cause stillbirth) and syphilis.

- Post-natal, either viral or (more commonly) bacterial.

• Microangiopathy—2° to severe infections ± DIC, also Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (giant haemangioma with haemolysis and thrombocytopenia).

438 • Drug or chemically induced.

430 • Infantile pyknocytosis (ffl Vitamin E deficiency, below).

• (Rare) metabolic disease such as Wilson's disease, galactosaemia.

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