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Complications related to the thermal ablation itself include unintentional thermal harm to non-targeted areas including burns at the grounding pads and interference with metallic implants such as pacemaker wires and cardioverter defibrillators. If the grounding pads are too small or not equidistant from the active electrode in monopolar systems there is an increased risk of grounding pad burns since then the pads can act as another electrode, focusing some energy. The risk of grounding pad...

References

Abraham J, Fojo T, Wood BJ (2000) Radiofrequency ablation of metastatic lesions in adrenocortical cancer. Ann Intern Med 133(4) 312-313 Ahrar K, Matin S, Wood CG et al (2005) Percutaneous radio-frequency ablation of renal tumors technique complications and outcomes. J Vasc Interv Radiol 16(5) 679-688 Brieger J, Pereira PL, Trubenbach J et al (2003) In vivo efficiency of four commercial monopolar radiofrequency ablation systems a comparative experimental study in pig liver. Invest Radiol 38(10)...

M mMSSMM msm

Different approaches - as theoretically shown in the drawings Figure 2.10.1a-d - during the intervention. a Transpedicular, b intercostovertebral, c posterolateral, and d anterolateral access routes. Needle tip should be positioned in the anterior third of the vertebral body, close to the midline. e This parasagittal image shows a good positioning of the needle in the middle of the vertebra al. 1998 Deramond et al. 1997 Galibert et al. 1987) it has been shown that the...

Technique of LITT 2321

Laser coagulation is performed using a Neodym-ium-YAG laser Fig. 2.3.1 Dornier MediLas 5060 or Dornier MediLas 5100 with a specially developed flexible laser applicator. Furthermore an application kit for percutaneous treatment was developed and optimized for our purposes. Laser light with a wavelength of 1046 nm is transmitted to tissue with a diffusing applicator. Laser light of this wavelength penetrates deeply into biological tissue, where photon absorption and heat conduction lead to...

Hepatocellular Carcinomaintroduction

A diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma HCC implies a poor prognosis. HCC is the cause of 250,000 deaths worldwide each year. Early HCC is typically clinically silent, and the disease is often well advanced at the first manifestation. Since the introduction of surveillance in patients at high risk of developing HCC, the diagnosis of small HCC has increased, especially in endemic areas such as in parts of Asia. Without treatment, there is a 5-year survival rate of less than 5 Llovet et al. 1999b...

Basic Principles of Radiofrequency Ablation 2111

In general, the various types of thermoablative techniques differ only by their physical method of generating heat e.g. radiofrequency, laser, micro wave, focused ultrasound . The fundamental principle of RFA is based upon the biophysical interaction of high-frequency alternating current typically 450500 kHz and biological tissue in terms of resistive frictional energy loss. Therefore, the term radio-frequency alludes to the alternating electric current oscillating in a high-frequency range of...