Exposure a-tocopherol

(diet + supplement)

Carotene, ascorbic acid, a-tocopherol (diet + supplement) Carotene, ascorbic acid, a-tocopherol a-tocopherol and ascorbic acid (supplement)

Carotenoids, ascorbic acid, a-tocopherol (diet + supplement) b-carotene, ascorbic acid, a-tocopherol (diet) Plasma levels of ascorbic acid


Nonfatal and fatal AMI Nonfatal and fatal AMI

Coronary mortality Coronary mortality Coronary mortality AMI

Cardiovascular mortality


Risk reduction = 41%

Risk reduction = 37%; reduction highest in those receiving supplements (>100 IU/day for at least 2 years) Vitamin E risk reduction = 32% and 65%

for men and women, respectively Vitamin C risk reduction = 51% in women Risk reduction = 53%

Risk reduction = 62%; benefit only from diet

Risk reduction = 45% for b-carotene; no effect of ascorbic acid or a-tocopherol Risk reduction = 30% for 20 mmol/L rise

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