• Thinamides: Propylthiouracil (PTU), Methimazole (Tapazole), inhibits T3 conversion and the oxidation and organification of iodine; may cause hepatitis, agranulocytosis, parotiditis; Methimazole is contraindicated in pregnancy

• Iodine, Lugol's solution: excess iodine inhibits thyroid hormone (Wolff-Chaikoff Effect); contraindicated in rheumatoid arthritis

• Glucocorticoids: suppress the hypothalamic—pituitary—thyroid axis

• Lithium: inhibits thyroid hormone release; contraindicated in renal failure and cardiovascular disease

• Propanolol, Metoprolol: (^-blockers) used to control the peripheral manifestation of sympathetic overactivity (inhibits thyrotoxicosis)

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