Other Causes

• Mandible and Maxillary Fractures: see pp. 449-460

• Dislocations: results in an open bite deformity; Rx: manual reduction for single acute instances, chronic dislocation may require sclerosing injections to stimulate scarring and contracting or a capsulorrhaphy

• Neoplasms: rare benign and malignant tumors of bone and cartilage; Rx: surgical management

• Ankylosis: most often from trauma or rheumatoid arthritis, typically unilateral, fibrous and bony types; Rx: surgical management (see abové), physical therapy

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