Layers ofFacial Planes

• subcutaneous fat

• mimetic muscles

• deep facial fascia

• deep elements (eg, facial nerve, parotid duct, buccal fat)

Facial Nerve Relationships

1. Frontal Branch: courses along line from earlobe to zygomatic arch at point midway between tragus and lateral canthus, over zygomatic arch then penetrates deep temporal fascia into the undersurface of the superficial temporal fascia

2. Zygomatic Branch: courses 1 cm below the zygomatic arch in a superior and medial direction from tragus to lateral canthus

3. Marginal Branch: exits the parotid 1 cm below the mandibular angle, deep to the platysma within the submandibular gland fascia (superficial to the facial vein)

NOTE: the facial nerve innervates facial muscles deeply except the buccinator, levator angular oris, and mentalis muscles

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