• Granulation Tissue: high risk if cartilage left exposed at points of contact of the laryngeal stents; Rx: laser excision, laryngeal dilation
• Stenosis: avoided with proper fixation of the laryngeal skeleton; Rx: initially should attempt dilation otherwise may require a revision thy-rotomy with excision of scarred tissue with reconstruction, severe stenosis may require tracheal resection or supraglottic laryngectomy
• Vocal Fold Paralysis: see pp. 112—117, for complete discussion on management
• Displaced Stents: may occur during coughing; Rx: for respiratory distress may extract the tube from a tracheostomy otherwise may access with bronchoscopy
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