3 Healthy Food Lies
Another major problem is that the GI is not the best indicator of healthy food choices. Although many healthy foods have a low GI (whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, dairy products), there are also foods of questionable value with low or moderate GI values. For example, soft drinks, candies, sugars, and high fat foods fall into this questionable category. The GI of foods can be lowered by adding or substituting sugars, especially fructose, sugar alcohols, or fat.
Practices with increasing reliance on high-fat, high-salt fast foods, disorganised family eating patterns and even a reluctance by many influential agencies to promote healthier eating along the lines of those in some other areas and countries such as around the Mediterranean and Scandinavia.
Randomized controlled trials and outcome studies of medical nutrition therapy (MNT) in the treatment of type-1 and type-2 diabetes have reported improved HbAlc levels of approximately 1-2 units (a 15-22 decrease) however, low GI diets compared to high GI diets have only been shown to lower HbAlc by 0.4 (7 decrease) 29 . MNT in these studies is provided by dietitians nutritionists as MNT only or as MNT in combination with diabetes self-management training 39 . Interventions for type-2 diabetes include reduced energy intake, reduced fat carbohydrate intake, carbohydrate counting and basic nutrition and healthy food choices for improved glycemia. Interventions for type-1 diabetes include carbohydrate counting and matching insulin doses to planned carbohydrate intake. Outcomes of the intervention are known by 3 months. Table 4 summarizes randomized controlled trials and outcome studies of MNT in type-1 and type-2 diabetes. Therefore it has been recommended that interventions demonstrated...
The guidelines discussed in this chapter can be applied to everyone throughout their lifetime. Identify when your energy needs are changing (i.e., changes in physical activity levels, pregnancy, breast feeding) and adjust your diet appropriately to maintain your health and fitness. Each individual should eat the appropriate number of servings from each food group based on their EER (refer to Chapter 1 and Table 3-2). Seek the help of a Registered Dietitian if you have any concerns about your diet or the diet of a family member. Even if you do not cook your meals or if you eat in the galley, you can make healthy food choices (see Appendix A). When eating in the galley, ask for the Healthy Navy Options menu items (available in the larger galleys and ships). Make high-fat foods the exception rather than the rule in your diet.
Therefore, a more promising but difficult approach to terminating the current rise in overweight and obesity may involve multi-sector cooperation of government, academia and industry - to design comprehensive overweight prevention programs (Koplan et al., 2004 Anon., 2006). These programs need to collaborate in several ways including educating healthy eating approaches for parents and children producing healthy foods and beverages developing an evidence-based approach to dietary guidance and policy formulation. A public health approach that has a singular focus on sugars and sugars-sweetened beverages is unlikely to provide a solution (Dietz, 2006).
Although the incidence of foodborne illness caused by the consumption of fruits and vegetables is low, there is some evidence that this risk is increasing 27 . Part of the increase may be due to the increased consumption of fresh produce, perceived by many consumers to be a healthy food choice. With an increase in consumption of fresh produce comes increased risk particularly if that produce is not handled in a safe and sanitary manner. Appropriate quality sorting and culling to ensure damaged and potentially contaminated produce does not enter the fresh market is not just an economically sound approach, it is an important component in the prevention of foodborne illness.
But current nutritional recommendations for patients with T2D in general do not attach great importance to weight loss. The goals of medical nutrition therapy aimed at by the ADA focus on attaining and maintaining optimal metabolic outcomes, on preventing and treating the chronic complications of diabetes, on improving health through healthy food choices and physical activity, and on addressing individual nutritional needs 12 . There is evidence that all these goals are easily reached or somewhat better reached with a reduction of body weight. However, it seems to be a common belief among physicians that nutritional therapy in T2D is not efficient. To optimize glycemic control physicians often start with drug or insulin therapy before the effects of diet treatment are assessable 13 .
Just as the name implies, there are no limits, no boundaries, no portion control. This is an open invitation to STUFF YOURSELF Sure there may be some healthy foods available on the buffet, but they will most likely be outnumbered by everything that is high fat, high calorie and tempting. The best bet is to avoid these types of restaurants While this may not always be realistic, there are some strategies for dealing with buffet.
As in ancient times, in the last century plant materials were the source of the medicinal principles. Crude herbs in the form of teas and encapsulated powders dominated the market later on, plant-active principles were identified and identical compounds to the natural substances were synthesized. Based on these synthetic structures, new preparations with greater activity were developed. Herbal products were removed from conventional medical use in the mid-20th century not necessarily because they were ineffective but because they were not as economically profitable as the newer synthetic drugs. Nevertheless, the new synthetic drugs, with enhanced potency, have side effects and also greater cost. Consequently, synthetic drugs require the close supervision of an expert, a physician, to employ them to best advantage. These three factors (side effects, greater cost, and medical supervision) caused people to return to the natural options, assuming that crude drugs could be used without...
Both the NHLBI Clinical Guidelines 1 and the USPSTF statement on obesity 2 state that an effective weight management program incorporates three components - diet, behavior, and physical activity. The dietary component is essential for the patient to learn how to create a caloric deficit without experiencing boredom or deprivation. The CAMES approach encourages the patient to reduce calories by making healthy choices regarding favorite foods the DASH diet encourages patients to eat fruits, vegetables, and low-fat meals in place of more calorically dense, less healthy foods. And meal replacements using prepackaged meals offer reduced calories andportion control with a healthy balance of macronutrients. The physician can suggest to the obese patient one, two, or all three dietary recommendations as a way to lower caloric intake for the long term.
Completing this manual is your first step to healthier eating and exercise habits. Losing weight and maintaining your weight loss can be a difficult challenge that requires constant vigilance, commitment, and frequent self-evaluation. You may have slips from time to time, yet recognizing these and getting back on your program are half the battle. The chapters and appendix of this manual contain valuable information that you may use often throughout your Navy career. Refer to it regularly. If you are married, you may want to share the information in this manual with your spouse or other family members. Although healthier eating habits begin with you, your family may benefit from additional nutrition guidance. If you are single, share the information on eating in the general mess, and eating away from home with friends or shipmates.
Include an increasing diversity of goods processed and manufactured from organic products. The pressures of industrial processing and manufacturing, as well as the intervention of multiple food retailers, have come to bear on organic farming and organic foods. The EU's regulation of organic processing standards has been less strict than that of organic farming. Concern has been raised over the number of nonorganic processing aids and additives allowed, and the rules governing complex processing plants which make both organic and conventional foods using a continuous process (House of Commons 2001). The ingredients of the final manufactured food product may compromise the healthy food goal, and image, promoted by organic farming (Lobstein 1999).
The PASS behavioral prescription is a two-page form containing four behavioral categories that deal with eating. The categories are portion size (P), adding healthy foods (A), substituting certain foods (S), and stopping certain eating behaviors (S) (Figure 10.1). Within each category are multiple, simple behavioral suggestions that may or may not apply to a particular patient. The form asks a question in each category. For example, Is it possible to stop certain eating behaviors or particular foods If the patient answers Yes to the question, then the patient is asked to consider certain behavioral suggestions from a list in each section. The patient is asked to put a check beside those behaviors that he or she is committed to doing.
Family members who eat the same healthy food and exercise together can be a strong support system for individuals with the dysmetabolic syndrome. Good friends, colleagues at work, the individual's physician, and others can play a major role in keeping motivation high. Social support systems work because supportive individuals serve as excellent role models, provide assistance in confronting and dealing with obstacles to change, and encourage self-acceptance 20 .
Generally, European consumers seem to know current dietary recommendations rather well. However, the reasons for healthy eating may vary for different people. Healthy food can be chosen for many reasons such as to prevent chronic diseases, to improve general well-being, or for ideological or moral reasons. Preventing disease or getting help for a particular health problem are the most frequently cited reasons for healthy eating.100-102 The potential benefits of healthy eating only affect behaviour if a person feels it is relevant for him- herself, is motivated and has sufficient knowledge to change his her behaviour.103 If the person is motivated, e.g. has a need to pay attention to their blood pressure, then the information
EATING MORE ANIMAL FOODS is one way of boosting the caloric and nutrient density of the diet, a shift that appears to have been critical in the evolution of the human lineage. But might our ancient forebears have improved dietary quality another way Richard Wrangham of Harvard University and his colleagues recently examined the importance of cooking in human evolution. They showed that cooking not only makes plant foods softer and easier to chew, it substantially increases their available energy content, particularly for starchy tubers such as potatoes and manioc. In their raw form, starches are not readily broken down by the enzymes in the human body. When heated, however, these complex carbohydrates become more digestible, thereby yielding more calories.