Oral tuberculosis is rare, but is important as it is usually a complication of advanced open pulmonary disease [155]. Tuberculosis is becoming increasingly more common in developed countries. This is partly due to HIV infections and the fact that multiple drug-resistant mycobacteria are becoming widespread.

The typical lesion is an ulcer, most commonly on the mid-dorsum of the tongue and gingiva, but other sites may be involved [122]. The ulcer usually has undermined edges, which may be stellate, and a pale granular floor. Occasionally it presents as a non-specific area of erythema or a chronic fissure [112]. It is painless in its early stages, but may become painful later. There is usually no regional lymph node involvement. The clinical features are often entirely non-specific and the diagnosis is initially suspected when the microscopy shows multiple epithelioid granulomas in the corium underlying an ulcer with undermined margins. The granulomas are usually non-caseating and it is unusual to demonstrate Mycobacteria, even using auramine and rhodamine staining. The organisms may be detected in the sputum (but rarely in the oral lesion) and chest radiographs typically show advanced disease. In patients who are immunosuppressed, the possibility of atypical my-cobacterial infection needs to be considered.

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

Rosacea and Eczema are two skin conditions that are fairly commonly found throughout the world. Each of them is characterized by different features, and can be both discomfiting as well as result in undesirable appearance features. In a nutshell, theyre problems that many would want to deal with.

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