Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma


Keratinising nasopharyngeal carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma, SCC) occurs typically after 40 years of age and shows obvious squamous differentiation with varying amounts of keratinisation. The stroma is desmoplas-tic and infiltrated by variable numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells, neutrophils and eosinophils. Poorly differentiated SCC may only contain rare horn pearls or focal areas of easily recognisable cornification. Immu-nohistochemical analysis with antibody to involucrin is helpful in identifying areas of abortive keratinisation [98]. EBV is almost always positive in nasopharyngeal SCC in endemic areas for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, but only a small number of cases in low incidence areas are positive for EBV. SCC shows a greater propensity for localised advanced tumour growth, but a lower rate of lymph node metastases [141, 164]. Radical surgery is not performed since radiotherapy is extremely effective. Survival and prognosis of SCC depends on tumour stage and has been reported to be better than that for non-ke-ratinising nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

an insidiously growing tumour with a predisposition for perineural spread, local recurrence and distant metastasis. Regional lymph node metastases are rare. His-tologically, adenoid cystic carcinomas are classified in tubular, cribriform and solid subtypes. The tubular and cribriform subtypes are considered low-grade tumours; the solid sub-type is a high-grade tumour with a rapid, fatal course and a higher incidence of distant metastasis with a poor prognosis [114]. When compared with conventional nasopharyngeal carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma has a higher incidence of cranial nerve involvement, but a lower incidence of cervical lymph node metastases.

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of minor salivary glands (ICD-O:8525/3) (or terminal duct carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, low-grade papillary ad-enocarcinoma) is a low-grade neoplasm typically occurring in the oral cavity. It has been documented in the nasopharynx in rare cases [144, 198]. The polymorphous low-grade carcinoma has a wide diversity of histological patterns including solid areas, papillary growth, ductal differentiation, cystic spaces and an in-filtrative growth pattern with perineural invasion. The main bulk of the carcinoma is found in the submuco-sa and the surface epithelium is often intact. In the nasopharynx, surgery or radiotherapy is the treatment of choice. Polymorphous low-grade carcinomas of salivary gland origin have a potentially aggressive biological course with metastases to cervical lymph nodes. For a detailed description of salivary gland tumours see Chap. 5.

Mole Removal

Mole Removal

Moles, warts, and other unsightly irregularities of the skin can be bothersome and even embarrassing. They can be removed naturally... Removing Warts and Moles Naturally! If you have moles, warts, and other skin irregularities that you cannot cover up affecting the way you look, you can have them removed. Doctors can be extremely expensive. Learn the natural ways you can remove these irregularities in the comfort of your own home.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment