Mucormycosis is caused by fungi of the class Zygomycetes and order Mucorales [73]. The most common species causing sinonasal infection are Rhizopus arrhizus and Rhizopus oryzae. In sections stained with PAS or Gomori methanamine silver the fungi are seen as non-septate hyphae measuring 10- to 20-p.m wide, usually branching at right angles. Infection is usually opportunistic and causes rapidly progressive disease in poorly controlled diabetics and immunocompromised patients. The fungus has a tendency to invade blood vessels causing thrombosis; the affected tissues may exhibit coagu-lative necrosis and haemorrhage.

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