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Contents

10.1 Summary of Anatomy and Histology 284

10.1.1 Conjunctiva 284

10.1.2 Cornea 284

10.1.3 Intraocular Tissues 284

10.1.4 Optic Nerve 284

10.1.5 Lacrimal Glands and Lacrimal Passages 284

10.1.6 Eyelids 284

10.1.7 Orbit 285

10.2 Conjunctiva 285

10.2.1 Developmental Anomalies 285

10.2.1.1 Dermoid, Dermolipoma and Complex Choristoma 285

10.2.2 Cysts 285

10.2.2.1 Inclusion cysts 285

10.2.3 Degeneration 286

10.2.3.1 Pinguecula and Pterygium 286

10.2.4 Inflammatory Processes 286

10.2.4.1 Acute Conjunctivitis 286

10.2.4.2 Chronic Non-Granulomatous Conjunctivitis . . . . 287

10.2.4.3 Granulomatous Conjunctivitis 287

10.2.4.4 Ligneous Conjunctivitis 287

10.2.4.5 Chlamydia Trachomatis (TRIC Agent) Infection . . 287

10.2.5 Dermatologic and Systemic Diseases 288

10.2.5.1 Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca 288

10.2.5.2 Dermatologic Diseases 288

10.2.5.3 Metabolic Diseases 288

10.2.6 Tumours and Tumour-Like Conditions 288

10.2.6.1 Epithelial 288

10.2.6.2 Melanocytic 290

10.2.6.3 Other Neoplasms 291

10.3 Cornea 292

10.3.1 Keratitis and Corneal Ulcers 292

10.3.1.1 Herpes Simplex Keratitis 292

10.3.1.2 Corneal Ulceration Due to Systemic Disease . . . . 292

10.3.2 Keratoconus 292

10.3.3 Hereditary Corneal Dystrophies 293

10.3.3.1 Epithelial Dystrophies 293

10.3.3.2 Stromal Dystrophies 293

10.3.3.3 Endothelial Dystrophies 293

10.3.4 Failed Previous Grafts 294

10.4 Intraocular Tissues 294

10.4.1 Developmental Anomalies 294

10.4.1.1 Congenital Glaucoma 294

10.4.1.2 Retinopathy of Prematurity 294

10.4.1.3 Persistent Primary Hyperplastic Vitreous 294

10.4.1.4 Retinal Dysplasia 294

10.4.1.5 Aniridia 294

10.4.1.6 Congenital Rubella Syndrome 294

10.4.2 Inflammatory Processes 295

10.4.2.1 Acute Inflammation 295

10.4.2.2 Chronic Non-Granulomatous Inflammation . . . . 295

10.4.2.3 Granulomatous Inflammation 295

10.4.3 Trauma 296

10.4.4 Degeneration 296

10.4.4.1 Glaucoma 296

10.4.4.2 Cataracts 297

10.4.4.3 Phtisis Bulbi 298

10.4.4.4 Retinal Vascular Disease 298

10.4.4.5 Retinal Detachment 298

10.4.4.6 Retinitis Pigmentosa 298

10.4.5 Tumours and Tumour-Like Conditions 298

10.4.5.1 Melanocytic 298

10.4.5.2 Lymphoid 300

10.4.5.3 Retinoblastoma and Pseudoretinoblastoma 300

10.4.5.4 Glial 301

10.4.5.5 Vascular 301

10.4.5.6 Other Primary Tumours 301

10.4.5.7 Metastatic Tumours 302

10.5 Optic Nerve 302

10.5.1 Papilloedema 302

10.5.2 Optic Neuritis 302

10.5.3 Optic Atrophy 302

10.5.4 Tumours 302

10.5.4.1 Glioma 302

10.5.4.2 Meningioma 302

10.6 Lacrimal Gland and Lacrimal Passages 302

10.6.1 Inflammatory Processes 302

10.6.2 Tumours and Tumour-Like Conditions 303

10.7 Eyelids 303

10.7.1 Cysts 303

10.7.1.1 Dermoid Cyst 303

10.7.1.2 Epidermal Cyst 303

10.7.1.3 Hidrocystoma 303

10.7.2 Inflammatory Processes 303

10.7.2.1 Chalazion and Other Ruptured Cysts 304

10.7.2.2 Deep Granuloma Annulare 304

10.7.2.3 Necrobiotic Xanthogranuloma 304

10.7.3 Amyloidosis 305

10.7.4 Tumours and Tumour-Like Conditions 305

10.7.4.1 Xanthelasmata 305

10.8 Orbit 305

10.8.1 Inflammatory Processes 305

10.8.1.1 Dysthyroid Ophthalmopathy 305

10.8.1.2 Cellulitis 305

10.8.1.3 Pseudotumour 306

10.8.2 Tumours and Tumour-Like Conditions 306

10.8.2.1 Developmental Cysts 306

10.8.2.2 Optic Nerve and Meningeal Tumours 306

10.8.2.3 Metastatic Tumours 307

References 307

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