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Contents

8.1 Summary of Embryology,

Anatomy and Histology 236

8.1.1 Embryology 236

8.1.2 Anatomy 236

8.1.3 Histology 237

8.2 External Ear and Auditory Canal 237

8.2.1 Inflammatory and Metabolic Lesions 237

8.2.1.1 Diffuse External Otitis 237

8.2.1.2 Perichondritis 237

8.2.1.3 Malignant Otitis Externa 237

8.2.1.4 Relapsing Polychondritis 238

8.2.1.6 Ochronosis 238

8.2.2 Pseudocystic and Cystic Lesions 238

8.2.2.1 Idiopathic Pseudocystic Chondromalacia 238

8.2.2.2 First Branchial Cleft Cyst 238

8.2.3 Tumour-Like Lesions 239

8.2.3.1 Chondrodermatitis Nodularis Helicis 239

8.2.3.2 Keratosis Obturans and Cholesteatoma of External Canal 239

8.2.3.3 Keratin Granuloma 239

8.2.3.4 Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia and Kimura's Disease 239

8.2.3.5 Accessory Tragus 240

8.2.4 Benign Neoplasms 240

8.2.4.1 Adenoma of Ceruminal Glands 240

8.2.4.2 Pleomorphic Adenoma of Ceruminal Glands 241

8.2.4.3 Syringocystadenoma Papilliferum of Ceruminal Glands 241

8.2.4.4 Bony Lesions 241

8.2.5 Malignant Neoplasms 242

8.2.5.1 Adenocarcinoma of Ceruminal Glands 242

8.2.5.2 Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Ceruminal Glands 242

8.2.5.3 Basal Cell Carcinoma 242

8.2.5.4 Squamous Cell Carcinoma 243

8.2.5.5 Melanotic Neoplasms 243

8.3 Middle Ear and Mastoid 244

8.3.1 Inflammatory Lesions 244

8.3.1.1 Acute and Chronic Otitis Media 244

8.3.1.2 Cholesteatoma 244

8.3.1.3 Unusual Inflammatory Lesions 247

8.3.2 Neoplasms and Lesions

Resembling Neoplasms 247

8.3.2.1 Choristoma

(Salivary Gland, Glial and Sebaceous Types) 247

8.3.2.2 Adenoma 247

8.3.2.3 Papillary Tumours 248

8.3.2.4 Jugulotympanic Paraganglioma 249

8.3.2.5 Squamous Carcinoma 250

8.3.2.6 Meningioma 251

8.3.2.7 Rhabdomyosarcoma 251

8.3.2.8 Metastatic Carcinoma 252

8.4 Inner Ear 252

8.4.1 Bony Labyrinth 252

8.4.1.1 Otosclerosis 252

8.4.1.2 Paget's Disease 253

8.4.1.3 Osteogenesis Imperfecta 254

8.4.1.4 Osteopetrosis 254

8.4.2 Membranous Labyrinth and Cranial Nerves 254

8.4.2.1 Viral, Bacterial and Mycotic Infections 254

8.4.2.2 Lesions of the Vestibular System 256

8.4.2.3 Tumours and Tumour-Like Lesions 257

8.4.2.4 Presbyacusis 260

8.4.2.5 Malformations 260

References 260

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