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3.1 Embryonic Rests and Heterotopias 72

3.1.1 Fordyce Granules/Spots 72

3.1.2 Juxtaoral Organ of Chievitz 72

3.2. Vesiculo-Bullous Diseases 72

3.2.1 Herpes Simplex Infections 72

3.2.2 Chickenpox and Herpes Zoster 73

3.2.3 Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease 73

3.2.4 Herpangina 74

3.2.5 Pemphigus Vulgaris 74

3.2.6 Pemphigus Vegetans 74

3.2.7 Paraneoplastic Pemphigus 75

3.2.8 Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid 75

3.2.9 Dermatitis Herpetiformis 76

3.2.10 Linear IgA Disease 76

3.2.11 Erythema Multiforme 77

3.3 Ulcerative Lesions 77

3.3.1 Aphthous Stomatitis

(Recurrent Aphthous Ulceration) 77

3.3.2 Beh├žet Disease 78

3.3.3 Reiter Disease 78

3.3.4 Median Rhomboid Glossitis 78

3.3.5 Eosinophilic Ulcer (Traumatic Ulcerative Granuloma with Stromal Eosinophilia) 79

3.3.6 Acute Necrotising Ulcerative Gingivitis 79

3.3.7 Wegener's Granulomatosis 80

3.3.8 Tuberculosis 81

3.4 White Lesions 81

3.4.1 Candidosis 81

3.4.2 Lichen Planus 82

3.4.3 Lupus Erythematosus 83

3.4.4 Oral Epithelial Naevi 84

3.4.5 Smoker's Keratosis 84

3.4.6 Stomatitis Nicotina 84

3.4.7 Hairy Tongue 85

3.4.8 Hairy Leukoplakia 85

3.4.9 Geographic Tongue 85

3.4.10 Frictional Keratosis 86

3.5 Pigmentations 86

3.5.1 Amalgam Tattoo 86

3.5.2 Localised Melanotic Pigmentation 86

3.5.2.1 Oral Melanotic Macules 86

3.5.2.2 Melanoacanthoma 87

3.5.2.3 Pigmented Naevi 87

3.5.3 Premalignant Oral Melanoses and Oral Melanoma 87

3.5.4 Addison Disease 88

3.5.5 Peutz Jeghers Syndrome 89

3.5.6 Racial Pigmentation 89

3.5.7 Laugier Hunziker Syndrome 89

3.5.8 Smoker's Melanosis 89

3.5.9 Drug-Associated Oral Pigmentation 90

3.6 Hyperplastic Lesions 90

3.6.1 Fibrous Hyperplasias 90

3.6.2 Papillary Hyperplasia 90

3.6.3 Generalised Gingival Fibrous Hyperplasia 91

3.6.4 Crohn's Disease 91

3.6.5 Orofacial Granulomatosis 92

3.6.6 Chronic Marginal Gingivitis and Localised Gingival Fibrous Hyperplasia 92

3.6.7 Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma

(Giant Cell Epulis) 93

3.6.8 Pyogenic Granuloma 93

3.6.9 Pulse (Vegetable) Granuloma 93

3.7 Benign Tumours and Pseudotumours 94

3.7.1 Giant Cell Fibroma 94

3.7.2 Lingual Thyroid 94

3.7.3 Verruciform Xanthoma 95

3.7.4 Haemangiomas 95

3.7.5 Lymphangioma 95

3.7.6 Benign Nerve Sheath Tumours 95

3.7.6.1 Neurofibroma 96

3.7.6.2 Schwannoma 96

3.7.6.3 Neurofibromatosis 96

3.7.6.4 Multiple Neuromas in Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome 96

3.7.7 Granular Cell Tumour

(Granular Cell Myoblastoma) 96

3.8 Squamous Cell Carcinoma 96

3.8.1 Introduction 96

3.8.2 Clinical Features 97

3.8.2.1 Buccal Mucosa 97

3.8.2.3 Floor of Mouth 97

3.8.2.4 Gingiva and Alveolar Ridge 97

3.8.2.5 Hard Palate 98

3.8.2.6 Retromolar Trigone 98

3.8.3 Staging 98

References 98

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