The normal pressure (13-21 mmHg) in the corneo-scleral envelope is maintained by a balance between the aqueous inflow and the resistance in the outflow system. The fluid is pumped into the eye by the ciliary epithelium, passes through the pupil to the chamber angle and leaves the eye via the trabecular meshwork and the canal of Schlemm to the collector canals in the sclera, draining into the episcleral venous system. Impaired outflow can cause high intraocular pressures and when the intraocular pressure is high enough to cause damage to the intraocular tissues, the term glaucoma is used. The primary cause of glaucoma can in

Fig. 10.18. Trauma caused by a wooden stick: this eye was enucleated 1 week after the trauma and showed scleral perforation, retinal detachment and haemorrhagic vitreous

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