Acute Inflammation

Acute endophthalmitis or panophthalmitis can occur as a postoperative complication or following a trauma [12, 57]. Endocarditis or injection of contaminated material in drug addicts can be the cause of metastatic bacterial infection, especially in immunocompromised patients [89]. Not only bacterial, but also fungal and viral infections can cause acute endophthalmitis. Histology shows an extensive infiltrate of leukocytes with destruction of intraocular tissues. The pathogen can sometimes be found in Gram, PAS or Silver stains. Acute necrotising retinitis and low-grade uveitis can be seen in cytomegaloviral and herpes infection (Fig. 10.17). The characteristic eosinophilic inclusions of the cytomegalovirus can be found in the cytoplasm and nuclei of infected cells. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-cytomegalovirus can be helpful in identifying the virus. The inclusions of herpes simplex retinitis can also be visualised with DNA in situ hybridisation.

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