Government Grants Database
The Brain Injury Association of America estimates that TBI in the US costs the community 48.3 billion per year, 31.7 billion in hospitalisation costs and 16.6 billion from fatal TBI. Spinal cord injury has been estimated to cost the US 9.7 billion each year (Berkowitz, 1998). In 2006 the US National Institutes of Health, the major government funding body, allocated 86 million for TBI research and 87 million for spinal cord injury research. Whether these are appropriate amounts can be argued.
A rapid transition towards community conservation in Mozambique took place in the mid-1990s. Anstey (2001) suggests that this shift took place not because of changes in policy or legislation, but partly because key staff in government departments saw the limitations of state-private sector partnerships when the state had little capacity to monitor and regulate and there was increased conflict with local people. Furthermore, specific NGOs and donors were promoting new ideas based on regional experience and signing up to the idea of community conservation, providing access to donor funding and technical support when government funding for natural resource management was declining.
Although there have been facilities for the treatment of the mentally ill in most general hospitals in all parts of the world, the major stimulus for the development of CL psychiatry came from the United States during the 1960s. ( ,.3,4) The first series of patients seen in psychiatric consultation was described in the 1930s in the United States.(4) In the 1950s Querido, in The Netherlands, reported a follow-up study of patients admitted to medical and surgical wards and argued for integrated services.(5) In the United States, services in a few university centres were supported by government grants, so that CL psychiatry became a recognizable type of service delivery. In 1967 and 1968 Lipowski compiled the literature into three key articles, and in 1977 Engel published a bio-psychosocial model as an alternative to the biomedical model 67 The Massachusetts General Hospital Handbook of General Hospital Psychiatry(88) was another important step in the systematic development
Another way to obtain the information necessary for racial and ethnic groups to benefit from pharmacogenomic testing would be government grants or programs that directly study racial and ethnic associations with drug responsiveness. If government may mandate inclusion of women and minorities in clinical research to ensure that their health care needs are met, then it may women and minorities in clinical research. The government would be funding a study that only African Americans could enter, so a racial classification is involved. In this case whites are excluded because there is evidence that the drug will not work for them but may for African Americans. Because most studies for heart disease have included white patients, indeed, have disproportionately benefited them in the past, whites are not being disadvantaged by this instance of government funding of a study that focuses exclusively on a drug that might work in African American heart patients. Without the study, many African...
Preparation of this manuscript was supported by National Science Foundation grant 0CE-0452333 and a fellowship from the Hanse-Wissenschaftskolleg (http www.h-w-k.de) to S.M.S. Research conducted in our laboratories (S.M.S., C.D.T., C.O.W.) on filamentous-sulfur formation and alternative carbon-fixation pathways was supported by National Science Foundation grants 0CE-0452333, IBN-0131557, and IBN-9630054, as well as NASA Astrobiology Institute grant NNA04CC04A. M.H. was supported through a WHOI postdoctoral scholarship. Thanks are due to Stephen J. Molyneaux for excellent technical support and for help in preparing this manuscript, as well as to Jack Cook for preparing Fig. 19.1.
Though most governments recognize the importance of public health programmes in reducing disease and disability, public health generally receives much less government funding compared with other areas of medicine. In recent years, large public health initiatives and vaccination programmes have made great progress in eradicating or reducing the incidence of a number of communicable diseases such as smallpox and poliomyelitis. One of the most important public
A group of goose biologists were meeting to brainstorm about the migration tactics of Canada geese. They were particularly interested in applying for a 100,000 Federal grant to investigate the V formation of goose flight. It had been observed that one side of the V is always longer
Organic production in the UK is showing a steep increase after a slow start that was mainly due to a previous lack of government funding and support (Stolton 1998). The consumption of organic products was already on the rise. As early as the mid-1980s organic foods became available in supermarkets and these have been a dominant force ever since, representing a share of around 70 of sales (see Comber 1998 O'Hara 2000). Recent food scares and the debate about genetically modified organisms have stimulated the market (Comber 1998).
Natal Parks Board (NPB) was formed in 1947 to manage 76 protected areas (6875km2) constituting 7.2 per cent of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Province. By 2002, it managed 110 parks. This agency has a good reputation for conservation and for providing recreational opportunities (see Chapter 8). With just under half of its budget derived from own income, and having managed consistently to obtain a good government grant, KZN has a budget of US 5091 km2. This is three times the estimated threshold operating budget of US 1524 km2 (necessary to manage parks of this size using Martin's (2003) model and assuming an average park size of 90km2), albeit noting that this expenditure includes commercial operations and conservation outside 'parks' which absorbs a substantial budget. Assessed from the perspective of institutional economics and politics, government grants were strongly related politically to the provision of affordable accommodation to the ruling elite, and latterly to a good record in...
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