Hyperphosphataemia is very prevalent among patients with ESRD and is a cause of hyperparathyroidism, metastatic calcification (when the serum calcium-phosphate product exceeds 5.5 mmol/l) (27) and has been associated with excess cardiovascular mortality in HD patients (28). The recommended

Table 15.5 Amino acid and protein losses during dialysis

Dialysis Modality

Amino acids (g)

Proteins/peptides (g)


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