This chapter discusses the nutritional management of hospitalised adult patients with diabetes. It covers the aetiology of hyperglycaemia, the effects of diabetes on nutritional status, the metabolic consequences of stress and specific nutrient mixes.
Artificial nutritional support can cause significant hyperglycaemia in individuals with pre-existing diabetes mellitus or pre-diabetes conditions like impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose. Artificial nutritional support can also exaggerate the hyperglycaemic response to stress caused by injury or illness unmasking glucose intolerance in the previously glucose-tolerant. Parenteral nutrition (PN), for example, can result in approximately 30% of patients developing transient diabetes (1).
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