In the fasted state, hepatic gluconeogenesis is essential for the production of glucose and maintenance of the blood sugar level. Ethanol is a potent inhibitor of gluconeogenesis. The suppression of gluconeogenesis, even at relatively low alcohol intakes, with low serum insulin and high serum glucagon, results in a decreased ratio of NAD + to NADH which inhibits the entry of the precursors of gluconeogenesis (i.e. glycerol, lactate, alanine and other amino acids) into the hepatocyte (13). This can lead to severe and prolonged hypoglycaemia when large volumes of alcohol are ingested rapidly and may occur up to 36 h after alcohol ingestion. The major problem of alcohol ingestion in the person with diabetes is induction and masking of hypoglycaemia, causing hypogly-caemia unawareness.
Hypoglycaemia most commonly occurs in the fasting state in people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes but also in non-diabetics, especially when hepatic glycogen stores are depleted or exhausted. Alcohol-induced hypoglycaemia may not be effectively treated by glucagon administration because it is related to depleted glycogen stores. Alcohol consumption leads to delayed glucose recovery from insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in people with Type 1 diabetes, and occurs despite normal adrenalin, nor-adrenalin and glucagon responses, however growth hormone and cortisol are reduced (14).
Hypoglycaemia in alcoholics can be exacerbated by a reduced ability to secrete some of the hormones involved in the control of lipolysis (e.g. cortisol and growth hormone) and results in a decrease in the rate of fatty acid release in starvation. Alcohol-induced severe hypoglycaemia can also result in irreversible neurological changes by causing irrecoverable damage to neurons and persistent disruption of cerebral functions (15).
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Alcoholism is something that can't be formed in easy terms. Alcoholism as a whole refers to the circumstance whereby there's an obsession in man to keep ingesting beverages with alcohol content which is injurious to health. The circumstance of alcoholism doesn't let the person addicted have any command over ingestion despite being cognizant of the damaging consequences ensuing from it.