Aetiology

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Patients with hyperglycaemia form a heterogeneous group. It is vital to identify the aetiology of the hyperglycaemia in order to tailor appropriate clinical care with clear medical and nutritional management aims and objectives. At any time approximately 10% of hospitalised patients have diabetes, with 85% of these having Type 2 diabetes (2). The stress response to trauma/illness commonly exacerbates hyperglycaemia in patients with pre-existing diabetes and not infrequently produces significant hyperglycaemia in previously euglycaemic patients (3). The hyperglycaemic response to stress is due to the increase in circulating counter-regulatory hormones (glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone and adrenaline) which together result in an increase in hepatic glucose production, a decrease in peripheral glucose uptake (4) and an increase in insulin resistance.

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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