Typing of Bacterial Isolates Using 16SrRNA

A resounding progress in the characterization of various bacteria in diagnostic samples has been the determination and characterization of the 16S-/18S-rRNA sequences of the respective isolates. This technique allows the identification of different prokaryotes at the species or genus level [18, 19]. The 16S-rRNA gene has been sequenced from over 70 000 bacterial and archeal strains, while its eukaryo-tic equivalent, the 18S-rRNA gene, is known from about 20000 eukaryotic microbes. Commercially available differentiation kits for bacterial pathogens are based on the specific detection of rRNA. These methods rely on DNA hybridization using rRNA or rDNA as a template for specific PCR amplifications or other nucleic acid amplification techniques [18, 20-24].

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