n. a. not available. a According to [101]. b According to [60]. c According to [30]. d According to [63].

Fig. 11.1 Multiple alignment of the four neisserial genomes so far fully sequenced using the program Mauve [100]. Locally collinear blocks of DNA are depicted in the same colors and connected via correspondingly colored lines. Equally colored blocks on different sides ofblack lines corresponding to

the respective genome sequence indicate chromosomal inversions. The chromosomal locations of potential prophages [30], putative genetic islands [13], and some putative virulence genes are given for strain MC58. (This figure also appears with the color plates.)

tified and designated as islands of horizontally transferred DNA (IHTs) (Table 11.1 and Fig. 11.1) [13] coding, with the exception of IHT-A1, mostly for hypothetical proteins [13]. IHT-A1 contains the genes of the capsule gene cluster, which is an important virulence determinant in both serogroup A and serogroup B meningo-cocci. Similarly, six putative genomic islands of about 2 kbp in size were identified in the N. gonorrhoeae genome [16] (Table 11.1 and Fig. 11.1). Four of these islands were found to encode putative adhesins, but most genes of these islands again code for proteins of unknown function. However, although these regions differ in their G+C content and codon usage, almost all of them are neither associated with tRNA loci, nor are they flanked by direct repeats, nor do they contain genes or pseudogenes coding for genetic mobility. Therefore, in striking contrast to what has been observed in Enterobacteriaceae, none of these putative islands seems to have the typical hallmarks of canonical pathogenicity islands [32].

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