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Introduction

The genus Streptococcus is made up of a group of low-percentage G+C gram-positive bacteria that includes nearly forty species. The individual species are pathogens or commensals of either humans or animals, such as cows, horses, and pigs. Although a species of streptococci may preferentially colonize a specific host, a number of species can infect alternate hosts when the opportunity arises. These organisms are found mainly on the mucosal surfaces of the upper respiratory tract or oral cavity, and may also be found in the intestinal tract or on the skin. Because of the great medical, veterinary, and industrial interest in these organisms, they were early targets for genome sequencing. In the last several years, the genome sequences of 14 different strains of streptococci have been completed, with another 14 in various stages of completion (Tables 8.1, 8.2).

Tab. 8.1 Complete sequences[a]

Organism

Size

GenBank

RefSeq

Center

Streptococcus agalactiae 2603V/R

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