Transformation and Mutagenesis

The formulation of the molecular Koch's postulates for research on bacterial pathogenicity [87] provided a framework for validation of microbial genes as virulence factors. Mycologists have been trying to apply these postulates to research on fungal pathogenesis and virulence with mixed success in defining true virulence factors, because fungal virulence is typically multifactorial. The proof of concept for a gene to be involved in pathogenesis of infection and disease is achieved when the specific inactivation of this gene leads to significant loss or attenuation of pathogenicity or virulence. Restoration of the gene activity should therefore result in regain of these properties. Transformation and gene inactivation are crucial techniques to evaluate the role of genes in pathogenesis. Spheroplast or lithi-

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